From Wikipedia, (The Free Encyclopedia.)
Messianic Judaism is any of a group of loosely related religious movements, all claiming a connection with Judaism, and all of which consider J-s-s to have been the Messiah.
Messianic Judaism began in the 1800's, as Jewish converts to the Church of England began to organize into smaller groups. This was paralleled by a growth of missions to the Jewish people. By the 1860's, the first Messianic umbrella organization, the Hebrew Ch--stian Alliance, had been formed through the Church of England with the primary goal of evangelizing the Jewish people.
Beliefs and practice range from evangelical Ch--stianity to close to Orthodox Judaism, while accepting J-s-s to be the Messiah (and G-d) and using the New Testament as scripture. The groups range from those comprised mostly of Jews to those which are mostly gentile in membership; the majority are mixed. While the controversial group Jews for J-s-s espouses the Messianic beliefs, Jews for J-s-s is an evangelical organization, not a religion or a denomination. Its stated aims are to educate Evangelical Ch--stians concerning the Jewish origins of their Ch--stian faith, and to convert Jews to Ch--stianity.
Most Jewish converts to Ch--stianity do not consider themselves "Messianic Jews". Protestant and Catholic churches may have Jewish converts among their members, but these members self-identify as Ch--stians. They also sometimes are referred to as Jewish Ch--stians, Hebrew Ch--stians, or Ch--stian Jews. The term "Messianic Jew" is used only to refer to those affiliated with organizations or congregations that claim to be specifically part of the self-described Messianic Jews movement.
Messianic Jews commonly use the name Yeshua, which may have been J-s-s' Hebrew or Aramaic name. Some Messianic Jews do not consider themselves "Ch--stians" (although by definition, they are), preferring to call themselves Messianic or "Torah-Observant" Jews. The vast majority of Jews, however, find the latter label a misnomer and highly offensive.
While many Messianic Jews are ethnically Jewish (and as such would be considered Jews even by traditional Jewish standards), Messianic Judaism is not seen as a legitimate form of Judaism by any recognized Jewish organization or leaders whatsoever. Many Messianic leaders are ordained clergy of various Ch--stian denominations and a number of the Messianic clergy have no ethnic connection to Judaism. A growing list of Ch--stian denominations, such as the Southern Baptist Convention and the Assemblies of G-d movement, actively plant Messianic congregations as part of their efforts to evangelize the Jewish people. At the present time, more than ten different Ch--stian denominations count Messianic congregations as members of their denomination.
Messianic religions in general
The use of the term "Messianic" is not new. Diverse religious groups have messianic beliefs which are not compatible with what has come to be commonly referred to as Messianic Judaism. Most notably, Rabbinic Judaism, including all the modern Jewish denominations, have a variety of beliefs about a future messianic era. Some Jewish groups whose beliefs stress the messianic aspects are known in the literature as "messianic Jews", but that is not the topic of this article. For messianic beliefs within traditional Judaism, see the entries on Jewish eschatology and Jewish Messiah.
Organization and beliefs
The organized Messianic Movement consists of approximately 200 congregations in the United States, with approximately one hundred thousand members. Global membership is more difficult to quantify; Messianic groups claim considerable growth in the past five to ten years in Israel, Russia, Ukraine, and even in Mexico, but accurate statistics are difficult to come by. Estimates of the number of ethnic Jews who worship J-s-s as the Messiah generally put the global figure at around a million, but only a minority of these are affiliated to any organized Messianic organization.
The Messianic Movement comprises many streams, each with its own views and emphases, but in general all consider it important to express their belief in Yeshua in a way consistent with their Jewish culture. The Messianic Movement as a whole can be seen as a mixed-continuum, with some Messianic organizations drawing more heavily from Jewish tradition, and others from Ch--stian sources, in varying degrees.
A minority within the Messianic movement make a determined effort to cling not only to Jewishness but also to Judaism, with the addition of J-s-s. Adherents of this religion often consider Gentile Ch--stianity to be an irrelevance; except on the question of who J-s-s is, they regard themselves as having more in common with Judaism than with Ch--stianity. They strictly observe the Sabbath and the dietary laws (Kashrut) of the Tanakh. Many of the small number that follow this mindset ignore, and even oppose, celebration of such Ch--stian festivals, having been originated in Gnosticism and Paganism as Ch--stmas and Easter.
Most Ch--stians justify their nonobservance of such Biblical feasts as Pesach (Passover) based on their belief that J-s-s was the fulfillment of the Jewish festivals. "Torah" pole Messianic Jews hold otherwise, noting J-s-s' word in Matthew 5:17: "Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have not come to abolish, but to complete, because I am telling you that neither Heavens nor earth will pass, until a yud (a Hebrew letter) nor the crown (the upper part of that letter) of a yud will pass away from the Torah until all of this will be accomplished." In the next verses J-s-s calls "very small ones indeed" those who think that the Torah will be abolished "or whoever teaches that".
Aside from differences over the necessity of Torah observance, some of these groups have also adopted views of J-s-s and the Trinity that would not be acceptable to most Ch--stian/Messianic groups. Some small movements believe that J-s-s was the Messiah, but do not accept that he was G-d, or part of a Trinity, nor that he ever intended to found another faith (Ch--stianity). Others go further, accepting J-s-s only as a human prophet, not as Messiah or G-d.
The major Messianic organizations reject those holding these positions, but are in turn criticised by these movements for pulling Jews away from Torah. These criticisms go unanswered because they are (relatively) so small in number.
The Evangelical pole
The vast majority of Messianic believers are much more comfortable with the Evangelical Ch--stian tradition, although they express it with a Jewish flavor. Jews for J-s-s is one such group.
Perhaps the best known of the Messianic groups, although certainly not the largest, is the controversial Jews for J-s-s organization, officially founded by the Baptist minister Martin Rosen, who prefers to be called "Moishe" Rosen, in 1973. Its stated aims are to educate Evangelicals concerning the Jewish origins of their Ch--stian faith, and to convert Jews to a belief in Yeshua (J-s-s), as the Messiah promised in the Jewish scriptures.
Their theology, as reflected in their statements of faith, is solidly within the ambit of Evangelical Ch--stianity. They believe in the inerrancy of the New Testament, salvation by grace through faith in J-s-s alone, the divinity of J-s-s whom they believe is Ch--st, and the Trinity. Apart from Jewish terminology and cultural practices, believers of this school have a much closer affinity to Evangelical and Pentecostal Ch--stianity than to any recognized branch of Judaism. They regard observance of the Sabbath and the Jewish dietary laws as entirely optional, although many of them do in fact try to observe them as an expression of their Jewish identity. This stream of Messianic Judaism has much in common with the beliefs of Hebrew Ch--stians, although they regard themselves part of the organized Messianic Movement, whereas Hebrew Ch--stians, for the most part, do not.
The mainstream Messianic movement
Within the Messianic movement, both of the positions described above are widely regarded as extremes, but they demarcate the two poles of a continuum. Most Messianic believers see themselves as lying somewhere between the two extremes. The two largest Messianic organizations, the Messianic Jewish Alliance of North America (MJAA) and the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations (UMJC), accept from both Jewish and Ch--stian sources anything they see as scritpurally verifiable. The writings of theologians Dan Juster, and Paul Liberman two of the founders of the UMJC, have helped shape the direction of the mainstream Messianic Movement: solidly Evangelical/Pentecostal in doctrine, with an uncompromising belief in the Trinity, but drawing heavily on Jewish sources to interpret the New Testament as well as the Tanakh (Old Testament).
Messianic Jews share with most Evangelical and Pentecostal Ch--stians a belief that Yeshua will someday return to the earth and establish his kingdom here. Much more widespread among Messianics than other Evangelicals, however, is the belief that the return of Yeshua is dependent on his acceptance by the Jewish people. Many Messianics (though not all) interpret Matthew 23:39 ("I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, 'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord'") to mean that the Jewish people, or at least a very significant number of them, must believe in Yeshua as the Messiah before he can come back.
A growing interest among some streams of Messianic Judaism is evangelism among Gentiles, as well as Jews, in order to fulfill what they believe was G-d's original purpose for the Jewish people, to be G-d's model people and reveal the knowledge of the true G-d to the whole world. This also reflects an increasing attraction on the part of Gentiles to the Messianic movement. Some are attracted because they are in a relationship with a Jew and feel the movement is a "compromise" between Judaism and Ch--stianity, but many are devout Ch--stians who feel that the movement is a way to better appreciate the Hebrew roots of Ch--stianity while still maintaining their faith.
The following practices are common among Messianic Jews. They reflect an effort to express their faith in J-s-s in a way that reflects their Jewish identity, and to feel at home in worshiping J-s-s.
1. Many Messianics do not use the "Ch--stian" label. Some make this choice because of its negative connotations to the Jewish community and some because they prefer to label themselves in a manner that reflects their Jewish identity. Still others reject this label because their worship, practices, and observances bear little resemblance to those of Ch--stianity.
2. Worship services are generally held on Friday evenings and Saturday, rather than Sunday, as they recognize that "HaShem" blessed only the seventh day as a day to be set apart for Him by both Jewish and Gentile. (Video clips of a Sabbath morning Messianic worship service.l)
3. They celebrate Jewish festivals, including Pesach (Passover), Hanukkah, Purim, Rosh HaShanah, Yom Kippur, Simchat Torah and the Feast of Tabernacles, among others.
4. Although individual Messianics who have Ch--stian relatives may celebrate Ch--stmas, Easter, etc., to preserve family harmony, holidays added by the gentile Church are not officially recognized by Messianic Judaism.
5. They call their places of worship congregations, ke-hi-lah (Hebrew for congregation), synagogues, shuls, or Beit Knesset rather than churches.
6. Many recognize that the Bible is a book in continuum, not a book divided into two sections, one of which called "old", while the other is called "new". They see the whole book as vibrant and relevant to modern life.
7. Instead of using the name "New Testament", many use the term "Apostolic Writings" or the Hebrew term Brit Chadasha (meaning "New Covenant").
8. They display Menorahs and Stars of David rather than crosses.
They use Hebrew Torah scrolls in their services.
9. They recite or cant (see cantillation) traditional Jewish prayers such as the Shema, Amidah, Aleinu, Kaddish, Kiddush, Motzi, Shehecheyanu, Adon Olam, Avinu Malkenu and the Birkhat-HaKohanim, also called the Priestly Blessing or the Aaronic Benediction.
10. Many wear kippot (Jewish head coverings), prayer shawls and tzitzit.
11. They call their clergy rabbis or teachers or "Congregational Leaders" rather than priests, ministers or Reverends.
12. They perform bar mitzvahs for boys and bat mitzvahs for girls.
13. They perform the brit milah (covenant of circumcision) for Jewish male babies.
Unlike Catholicism and some Protestant denominations, they practice "believers only" baptism (no infant baptism) and only by immersion, not sprinkling or pouring. They recognize a prior Ch--stian immersion baptism if the person was a believer when baptized.
14. They refer to J-s-s and to apostles by what they believe to be their Hebrew names. Thus, J-s-s is called Yeshua (Y'shua), John is called Yochanan, and Paul is called Sha'ul.
15. Many Messianic Jews observe the Jewish dietary laws (kashrut). Among some Messianic groups (but not all), this is compulsory; it is held that the laws of kashrut are still G-d's will for Jews today. It is argued that faith in J-s-s should make them more Jewish, not less. Other Messianic groups, however, are less dogmatic about this. The vast majority of Messianic gentiles believe the kashrut laws were discontinued, based on several passages, e.g., Acts 10:9.
Views about the need of circumcision in order for men to join are not clear.
16. Some Messianic congregations scrupulously avoid many traditional Ch--stian terms that evoke negative emotional reactions among Jews and substitute neutral terms, e.g., Ch--st (Messiah), church (congregation, ke-hi-lah, shul), Cross (tree, execution stake), crucifixion (death, execution), crucified (executed, put to death, nailed to the tree, hanged on a tree) J-s-s (Yeshua), Old Testament (Tanakh), New Testament (Brit Chadasha), Trinity (triunity), Holy Spirit (Ruach HaKodesh), Jehovah (Hashem), gospel (good news), evangelize (tell the good news). Other congregations use both Ch--stian and Messianic terminology in roughly equal amounts.
Messianic Judaism or Hebrew Ch--stianity?
Messianic Jews consider their primary identity to be "Jewish" and belief in J-s-s to be the logical conclusion of their "Jewishness". They try to structure their worship according to Jewish norms, and generally follow some parts of Jewish law. Many (but by no means all) do not use the label "Ch--stian" to describe themselves.
Hebrew Ch--stians identify themselves primarily as Ch--stians. They are (mostly) members of Protestant and Catholic congregations, generally do not practice any aspects of Jewish law, and are typically assimilated culturally into the Ch--stian mainstream, although they retain a strong sense of their Jewish identity which they, like Messianic Jews, strongly desire to pass on to their children. Though the boundary between the two movements is blurred, because of their differences they are often treated separately.
Critics of the Messianic movement
All mainstream Jewish denominations and organizations hold that Messianic Jews are not practicing Judaism, but Protestant Ch--stianity. Messianic Judaism is condemned as heretical and non-Jewish by Reform, Orthodox, Conservative, and Reconstructionist Judaism.
There are a few dissenting voices. A few within Humanistic Judaism, a small group of atheist and agnostic Jews who are also controversial amongst every other branch of Judaism, hold that messianic Judaism is a viable approach to Judaism, and believe such groups should be considered forms of Judaism. One can also find a miniscule number of religiously liberal Jews who are accepting of messianic Judaism: Reconstructionist Rabbi Carol Harris-Shapiro wrote in her book Messianic Judaism that it could be considered an authentic branch of Judaism. Reform Rabbi Dan Cohn-Sherbok, editor of Voices of Messianic Judaism: Confronting Critical Issues Facing a Maturing Movement, also regards it as a valid form of Judaism. However, their work has failed to win any acceptance among their denominations, or among the wider Jewish community, and has sparked an ongoing controversy as to whether the authors themselves have gone too far. The very overwhelming majority of Jews (including secular ones) believe they have.
The relationship between the Messianic Movement and organized Ch--stianity has been patchy, too. Many Evangelical and Pentecostal groups have welcomed the movement and have actively founded Messianic congregations, but many more liberal Ch--stians have been more critical. Some Ch--stians, mostly liberal, feel that Messianic groups are guilty of false advertising. In 1977, for example, the Board of Governors of the Long Island Council of Churches (New York) accused Jews for J-s-s of "engaging in subterfuge and dishonesty," and of "mixing religious symbols in ways that distort their essential meaning." The Jews for J-s-s organization filed a lawsuit, which was ultimately rejected, against the 600-member council in the New York State Supreme Court in Manhattan. (The New York Times, July 2, 1977). (In New York State, a Supreme Court is a general trial court equivalent to a District Court in most other states.)
Another organization critical of the Messianic Movement is the Interfaith Conference of Metropolitan Washington. In 1997 this group, comprising liberal Ch--stian, as well as Jewish and Muslim leaders, put out a strongly worded statement, condemning the proselytization efforts of the Messianic Movement. Most Evangelicals reject the criticism and defend evangelism among Jews.
Some Evangelicals, however, have criticized the Messianic Movement on entirely different grounds. Some consider the movement to be "too Jewish" for holding on to parts of the Old Testament that many Ch--stians believe are not applicable today. But this criticism is not widespread in Evangelical circles.
Parallels to Baal Teshuva
These efforts to convert Jews to Ch--stianity, and the receptiveness of some Jews to it in the past few decades, are a parallel phenomenon, although in an obviously different context, to the Baal teshuva movement that has witnessed a vigorous outreach effort by Jewish Orthodox institutions to reach out to Jews alienated from, or ignorant about, the Jewish faith.
Orthodox Jews are conscious of the fact that they are competing with the Messianic movement for the same audience. Specific organizations, such as Jews for Judaism and Outreach Judaism are devoted to keeping Jews out of any Ch--stian movements, and particularly Messianic congregations. The widespread fascination with Hinduism and Buddhism, and a willingness to join these movements, by previously secular young Israelis and American Jews, is seen as part of the same phenomenon. What all share in common here is the fact that a "market" exists for all these efforts, which in turn is indicative of a strong receptiveness to religious and spiritual notions, and a willingness to "buy into" an alternate religious experience and a radical new way of life, leaving many secular Jews mystified by the success of religion-based outreach and recruitment.